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Appointment
Operation of Judges’ Nominations Committee
Qualifications
Citizenship
Declaration of Allegiance
Salary
Exclusivity of Office
Term of Office: Commencement and Conclusion
Disciplinary Proceedings
Criminal proceedings
Further Advanced Study for Judges
Justices of the Supreme Court of Israel
   .
  See: Basic Law: The Judicature. Courts Law [Consolidated Version], 5744-1984, Sections 1-24.
   
  Appointment
   
  Judges are appointed by the President of the State
  upon the nomination of “the Judges’ Nominations Committee”. The Nominations Committee is composed of nine members: three judges (the President of the Supreme Court, and two Supreme Court justices), two Ministers (one of them being the Minister of Justice), two members of the Knesset and two representatives of the Israel Bar Association. At the head of the Committee is the Minister of Justice.
   
  The three organs of the State - the legislatve,
  executive, and judicial branch, as well as the Bar Association are represented in the Judges’ Nominations Committee. Thus, the shaping of the judicial body, through the manner of judicial appointment, is carried out by all the authorities together.
   
  The manner of nominating judges in Israel and the
  composition of the Nominations Committee ensure that the considerations taken into account in the nomination of a judge are relevant and material: the nominee’s legal stature, his experience, his capability and integrity.
   
   .
  Operation of Judges’ Nominations Committee
   
  Notice as to the requirement of a judicial appointment
  is published in Reshumot (the official government gazette).
   
  An attorney who wishes to be appointed a judge
  submits to the Judges’ Nominations Committee a request on the questionnaire that the Committee prescribes. The candidate appears before a sub-committee of the Nominations Committee, which presents its findings to the Nominations Committee. In addition, the following may propose candidates: the Minister of Justice, the President of the Supreme Court, three Committee members. The Committee decides on the appointment of a judge by majority vote of members taking part in the ballot.
   
  . 
  Qualifications
   
  The following are qualified to be appointed a justice
  of the Supreme Court: a person who has held office as a judge of a District Court for a period of five years, or a person who is inscribed, or entitled to be inscribed, in the roll of advocates, and has for not less than ten years –continuously or intermittently- (of which five years at least in Israel) been engaged in the profession of an advocate, served in a judicial capacity or other legal function in the service of the State of Israel or other service as designated in regulations in this regard, or has taught law at a university or a higher school of learning as designated in regulations in this regard. To the Supreme Court can also be appointed “an eminent jurist”.
   
  The following are qualified to be appointed a judge of
  the District Court: a person who has held office as a judge of the Magistrates’ Court for a period of four years or a person who is inscribed, or entitled to be inscribed, in the roll of advocates, and has for not less than seven years –continuously or intermittently- (of which three years at least in Israel) been engaged in the profession of an advocate, served in a judicial capacity or other legal function, or has taught law at a university or a higher school of learning as designated in regulations in this regard.
   
  The following are qualified to be appointed a judge of
  the Magistrates’ Court: a person who is inscribed, or entitled to be inscribed, in the roll of advocates, and has for not less than five years -continuously or intermittently- (of which two years at least in Israel) been engaged in the profession of an advocate, served in a judicial capacity or other legal function, or has taught law at a university or a higher school of learning as designated in regulations in this regard.
   
   .
  Citizenship
   
  A person may not be appointed as a judge if he is not
  a citizen of Israel.
  . 
  Declaration of Allegiance
   
  Prior to the commencement of his term of office the
  judge declares before the President of the State his “allegiance to the State of Israel and its laws; to dispense true justice, not to pervert the law nor to show favour”.
   .
  Salary
   
  The salary of the judges and other sums paid to them
  during their tenure or subsequently, or to their beneficiaries after their death, are determined by law or by resolution of the Knesset, or one of its committees. The law does not permit a resolution specifically intended to lower the salary of judges.
   
  . 
  Exclusivity of Office
   
  A judge may not be engaged in a further occupation
  or take up a public function, except as prescribed by law, or with the consent of the President of the Supreme Court and the Minister of Justice.
   
  . 
  Term of Office: Commencement and Conclusion
   
  The term of office of a judge commences with his
  declaration of allegiance. It does not terminate other than at one of the periods determined by law. These are: on retirement at pension - the age of retirement is 70, and a judge cannot serve past this age, resignation, death, by his election or appointment to a position whose bearers are proscribed from being Knesset candidates. The term of office of a judge also terminates with his removal from office - whether by resolution of the Judges’ Nominations Committee passed by a majority of at least seven members, or by decision of the Judges’ Disciplinary Tribunal.
   
  A judge may be required to retire on pension before
  reaching retirement age, if the Nominations Committee, on the basis of a medical opinion, establishes that by reason of the state of his health he is unable to continue carrying out his functions.
   
  . 
  Disciplinary Proceedings
   
  Judges are subject to the Judges’ Disciplinary
  Tribunal. The Presiding Judge of the Disciplinary Tribunal is appointed by the President of the Supreme Court. All the members of the Disciplinary Tribunal are judges or retired judges.
   
  . 
  Criminal proceedings
   
  Judges are subject to criminal proceedings, in the
  manner specified by the law. The initiation of a criminal investigation against a judge requires the consent of the Attorney General. A statement of indictment against a judge can only be filed by the Attorney General. A criminal trial against a judge can only be held before a District Court, sitting with a bench of three judges, unless the defendant judge agrees that the case be heard in the regular fashion.
   
  . 
  Further Advanced Study for Judges
   
  In Israel judicial training per se is not a precondition
  to judicial appointment. The Israeli judge is an experienced jurist who is chosen, as stated, from the judiciary, from amongst attorneys, the State legal service, or from teachers of law at universities.
   
  Yet, in order to preserve as well as invigorate the high
  standard of the judiciary, there has been established, under the auspices of the Supreme Court in Jerusalem, an Institute of Judicial Training for Judges, named after Dr. Yoel Sussmann, a former President of the Supreme Court. The advanced studies are intended for serving judges, new judges, as well as candidates for the judiciary. At the head of the Institute are justices of the Supreme Court. Amongst its teachers are judges and lecturers of law faculties in Israel, as well as guest lecturers from abroad.
   
  . 
  Justices of the Supreme Court of Israel
   
  Justice Miriam Naor - President
   
  Justice Elyakim Rubinstein - Deputy President
   
  Justice Salim Joubran
   
  Justice Esther Hayut
   
  Justice Hanan Melcer
   
  Justice Yoram Danziger
   
  Justice Neal Hendel
   
  Justice Uzi Vogelman
   
  Justice Isaac Amit
   
  Justice Zvi Zylbertal
   
  Justice Noam Sohlberg
   
  Justice Uri Shoham
   
  Justice Daphne Barak - Erez
   
  Justice Menachem Mazuz
   
  Justice Anat Baron